Engineering Enzymes in Energy Crops
Conditionally Activated Enzymes Expressed in Cellulosic Energy Crops
01/15/2010 to 10/31/2013
The U.S. relies almost exclusively on petroleum-based fuels to power its cars, trucks, and planes. Fossil fuels like petroleum are subject to price instabilities that impact consumers, and they produce harmful emissions. Biofuels produced domestically from biomass are a promising alternative. However, the methods used to turn biomass into fuel are currently too costly and inefficient to make these biofuels a commercially viable alternative to fossil fuels.
Project Innovation + Advantages:
Enzymes are required to break plant biomass down into the fermentable sugars that are used to create biofuel. Currently, costly enzymes must be added to the biofuel production process. Engineering crops to already contain these enzymes will reduce costs and produce biomass that is more easily digested. In fact, enzyme costs alone account for $0.50-$0.75/gallon of the cost of a biomass-derived biofuel like ethanol. Agrivida is genetically engineering plants to contain high concentrations of enzymes that break down cell walls. These enzymes can be "switched on" after harvest so they won't damage the plant while it's growing.
If successful, Agrivida would decrease the production cost of domestic biofuels by up to 20%.
Increasing production of domestic biofuels could help the U.S. cut foreign oil imports by 33% in 15 years.
Widespread use of biofuels would help reduce and stabilize gas prices for consumers.
Widespread use of biofuels, biopower, and other bio-based products has the potential to conserve 1.26 billion barrels of oil, 58 million tons of coal, and 682 million tons of carbon dioxide from 2020-2030.