BEEST

Stanford University
The All-Electron Battery: A Quantum Leap Forward in Energy Storage
Program: 
ARPA-E Award: 
$1,501,742
Location: 
Stanford, CA
Project Term: 
07/01/2010 to 06/30/2012
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Critical Need: 
Most of today's electric vehicles (EVs) are powered by lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries - the same kind of batteries used in cell phones and laptop computers. Currently, most Li-Ion batteries used in EVs provide a driving range limited to 100 miles on a single charge and account for more than half of the total cost of the vehicle. To compete in the market with gasoline-based vehicles, EVs must cost less and drive farther. An EV that is cost competitive with gasoline would require a battery with twice the energy storage of today's state-of-the-art Li-Ion battery at 30% of the cost.
Project Innovation + Advantages: 
Stanford is developing an all-electron battery that would create a completely new class of energy storage devices for EVs. Stanford's all-electron battery stores energy by moving electrons rather than ions. Electrons are lighter and faster than the ion charge carriers in conventional Li-Ion batteries. Stanford's all-electron battery also uses an advanced structural design that separates critical battery functions, which increases both the life of the battery and the amount of energy it can store. The battery could be charged 1000s of times without showing a significant drop in performance.
Impact Summary: 
If successful, Stanford would create an entirely new class of EV batteries capable of storing much more energy than traditional Li-Ion batteries, facilitating widespread EV use.
Security: 
Increased use of EVs would decrease U.S. dependence on foreign oil--the transportation sector is the dominant source of this dependence.
Environment: 
Increased use of EVs would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 28% of which come from the U.S. transportation sector.
Economy: 
This project would help position the U.S. as a leader in rechargeable battery manufacturing. Currently, the U.S. manufactures only a small percentage of all rechargeable batteries, despite inventing the majority of battery technologies.
Contacts
ARPA-E Program Director: 
Dr. Timothy Heidel
Project Contact: 
Kate Chesley
Planar Energy Devices
Solid-State Large Format All Inorganic Lithium Batteries
Program: 
ARPA-E Award: 
$2,636,550
Location: 
Orlando, FL
Project Term: 
07/01/2010 to 04/10/2012
Project Status: 
CANCELLED
Critical Need: 
Most of today's electric vehicles (EVs) are powered by lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries--the same kind of batteries used in cell phones and laptop computers. Currently, most Li-Ion batteries used in EVs provide a driving range limited to 100 miles on a single charge and account for more than half of the total cost of the vehicle. To compete in the market with gasoline-based vehicles, EVs must cost less and drive farther. An EV that is cost-competitive with gasoline would require a battery with twice the energy storage of today's state-of-the-art Li-Ion battery at 30% of the cost.
Project Innovation + Advantages: 
Planar Energy is developing a new production process where lithium-ion batteries would be printed as a thin film onto sheets of metal or plastic. Thin-film printing methods could revolutionize battery manufacturing, allowing for smaller, lighter, and cheaper EV batteries. Typically, a battery's electrolyte--the material that actually stores energy within the cell--is a liquid or semi-liquid; this makes them unsuitable for use in thin-film printing. Planar is working with a ceramic-based gel electrolyte that is better suited for printing. The electrolyte would be printed onto large reels of metal or plastic along with other battery components. Once printed, these reels can be cut up into individual cells and wired together to make battery packs. By reducing packaging materials with this unique production process, Planar's efficient Li-Ion battery design would allow more space for storing energy--at a far lower cost--than today's best Li-Ion battery designs.
Impact Summary: 
If successful, Planar's thin-film printed Li-Ion batteries would improve the driving range of EVs and reduce their sticker price, enabling a shift in transportation energy from foreign oil to domestically powered electricity.
Security: 
Increased use of EVs would decrease U.S. dependence on foreign oil--the transportation sector is the dominant source of this dependence.
Environment: 
Greater use of EVs would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 28% of which come from the transportation sector.
Economy: 
This battery would enable an EV to travel from Chicago to St. Louis (300 miles) on a single charge, for less than $10 on average.
Contacts
ARPA-E Program Director: 
Dr. Dane Boysen
Project Contact: 
Rick Sacks
Partners
NREL
University of California San Diego (UCSD)
University of Central Florida (UCF)
University of Colorado (UCB)
University of Florida (UF)
University of South Florida (USF)
Missouri University of Science & Technology (Missouri S&T)
High Performance Cathodes for Lithium-Air Batteries
Program: 
ARPA-E Award: 
$1,200,000
Location: 
Rolla, MO
Project Term: 
08/01/2010 to 01/16/2013
Project Status: 
CANCELLED
Critical Need: 
Most of today's electric vehicles (EVs) are powered by lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries--the same kind of batteries used in cell phones and laptop computers. Currently, most Li-Ion batteries used in EVs provide a driving range limited to 100 miles on a single charge and account for more than half of the total cost of the vehicle. To compete in the market with gasoline-based vehicles, EVs must cost less and drive farther. An EV that is cost-competitive with gasoline would require a battery with twice the energy storage of today's state-of-the-art Li-Ion battery at 30% of the cost.
Project Innovation + Advantages: 
Researchers at Missouri S&T are developing an affordable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery that could enable an EV to travel up to 350 miles on a single charge. Today's EVs run on Li-Ion batteries, which are expensive and suffer from low energy density compared with gasoline. This new Li-Air battery could perform as well as gasoline and store 3 times more energy than current Li-Ion batteries. A Li-Air battery uses an air cathode to breathe oxygen into the battery from the surrounding air, like a human lung. The oxygen and lithium react in the battery to produce electricity. Current Li-Air batteries are limited by the rate at which they can draw oxygen from the air. The team is designing a battery using hierarchical electrode structures to enhance air breathing and effective catalysts to accelerate electricity production.
Impact Summary: 
If successful, Missouri S&T's new Li-Air battery design would make EVs a cost-competitive and high-performance alternative to gasoline-powered vehicles.
Security: 
Increased use of EVs would decrease U.S. dependence on foreign oil--the transportation sector is the dominant source of this dependence.
Environment: 
Greater use of EVs would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 28% of which come from the transportation sector.
Economy: 
This battery would enable an EV to travel from New York City to Richmond, VA (335 miles) on a single charge, for less than $10 on average.
Contacts
ARPA-E Program Director: 
Dr. Dane Boysen
Project Contact: 
Dr. Yangchuan (Chad) Xing
Partners
Brookhaven National Laboratory
MaxPower, Inc.
NanoLab, Inc.
Revolt Technology
Zinc Flow Air Battery (ZFAB), The Next Generation of Energy Storage for Transportation
Program: 
ARPA-E Award: 
$5,182,335
Location: 
Portland, OR
Project Term: 
10/01/2010 to 06/30/2012
Project Status: 
CANCELLED
Critical Need: 
Most of today's electric vehicles (EVs) are powered by lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries--the same kind of batteries used in cell phones and laptop computers. Currently, most Electric Vehicle mounted Li-Ion batteries have a driving range limited to 100 miles on a single charge and account for nearly 65% of the total cost of EVs. To compete in the market with gasoline-based vehicles, EVs must cost less and drive farther. An EV that is cost-competitive with gasoline would require a battery with twice the energy storage of today's state-of-the-art Li-Ion battery at 30% of the cost.
Project Innovation + Advantages: 
ReVolt is developing a rechargeable zinc-air battery that could offer 300-500% more storage capacity than today's Li-Ion batteries at half their cost. Zinc-air batteries could be much more inexpensive, lightweight, and energy dense than Li-Ion batteries because air--one of the battery's main reactants--does not need to be housed inside the battery. This frees up more space for storage. Zinc-air batteries have not been commercially viable for use in EVs because they typically cannot be recharged, complicating vehicle "refueling". ReVolt has designed a system whereby the battery's zinc-based negative electrode is suspended in liquid and passed through a tube that functions as the battery's positive electrode. This allows the device to charge and discharge just like a regular battery.
Impact Summary: 
If successful, ReVolt's zinc-air battery would provide 300-500% more power than a traditional EV battery at less than half the cost, facilitating the widespread adoption of EVs.
Security: 
Increased use of EVs would decrease U.S. dependence on foreign oil--the transportation sector is the dominant source of this dependence.
Environment: 
Increased use of EVs would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 28% of which come from the U.S. transportation sector.
Economy: 
This project could enable batteries that could travel from Chicago to St. Louis (300 miles) on a single charge, which could save the average American driver up to $500 a year in fuel costs.
Contacts
ARPA-E Program Director: 
Dr. Dane Boysen
Project Contact: 
Harvey Mancey
24M Technologies
Semi-Solid Flow Cells for Automotive and Grid-Level Energy Storage
Picture of 24M technician
Program: 
ARPA-E Award: 
$5,975,331
Location: 
Cambridge, MA
Project Term: 
09/01/2010 to 08/31/2013
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Critical Need: 
Most of today's electric vehicles (EVs) are powered by lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries--the same kind of batteries used in cell phones and laptop computers. Currently, most Li-Ion batteries used in EVs provide a driving range limited to 100 miles on a single charge and account for more than half of the total cost of the vehicle. To compete in the market with gasoline-based vehicles, EVs must cost less and drive farther. An EV that is cost-competitive with gasoline would require a battery with twice the energy storage of today's state-of-the-art Li-Ion battery at 30% of the cost.
Project Innovation + Advantages: 
Scientists at 24M are crossing a Li-Ion battery with a fuel cell to develop a semi-solid flow battery. This system relies on some of the same basic chemistry as a standard Li-Ion battery, but in a flow battery the energy storage material is held in external tanks, so storage capacity is not limited by the size of the battery itself. The design makes it easier to add storage capacity by simply increasing the size of the tanks and adding more paste. In addition, 24M's design also is able to extract more energy from the semi-solid paste than conventional Li-Ion batteries. This creates a cost-effective, energy-dense battery that can improve the driving range of EVs or be used to store energy on the electric grid.
Impact Summary: 
If successful, 24M's project would improve the driving range of EVs and reduce their sticker price, enabling a shift in transportation energy from foreign oil to domestically powered electricity.
Security: 
Increased use of EVs would decrease U.S. dependence on foreign oil--the transportation sector is the dominant source of this dependence.
Environment: 
Greater use of EVs would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 28% of which come from the transportation sector.
Economy: 
This battery would enable an EV to travel from Chicago to St. Louis (300 miles) on a single charge, for less than $10 on average.
Contacts
ARPA-E Program Director: 
Dr. Eric Rohlfing
Project Contact: 
Dr. Taison Tan
Partners
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Sion Power
Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cells for Electric Vehicle Applications
Graphic of Sion's technology
Program: 
ARPA-E Award: 
$5,000,000
Location: 
Tucson, AZ
Project Term: 
10/01/2010 to 09/30/2013
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Critical Need: 
Most of today's electric vehicles (EVs) are powered by lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries--the same kind of batteries used in cell phones and laptop computers. Currently, most Li-Ion batteries used in EVs provide a driving range limited to 100 miles on a single charge and account for more than half of the total cost of the vehicle. To compete in the market with gasoline-based vehicles, EVs must cost less and drive farther. An EV that is cost-competitive with gasoline would require a battery with twice the energy storage of today's state-of-the-art Li-Ion battery at 30% of the cost.
Project Innovation + Advantages: 
Sion Power is developing a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, a potentially cost-effective alternative to the Li-Ion battery that could store 400% more energy per pound. All batteries have 3 key parts--a positive and negative electrode and an electrolyte--that exchange ions to store and release electricity. Using different materials for these components changes a battery's chemistry and its ability to power a vehicle. Traditional Li-S batteries experience adverse reactions between the electrolyte and lithium-based negative electrode that ultimately limit the battery to less than 50 charge cycles. Sion Power will sandwich the lithium- and sulfur-based electrode films around a separator that protects the negative electrode and increases the number of charges the battery can complete in its lifetime. The design could eventually allow for a battery with 400% greater storage capacity per pound than Li-Ion batteries and the ability to complete more than 500 recharge cycles.
Impact Summary: 
If successful, Sion Power's project would encourage production of low-cost, high-energy, rechargeable Li-S batteries, contributing to the widespread adoption of EVs. Improving the number of recharge cycles limits battery replacements, saving drivers money.
Security: 
Increased use of EVs would decrease U.S. dependence on foreign oil--the U.S. spends nearly $1billion per day on oil.
Environment: 
Greater use of EVs would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 28% of which come from the transportation sector.
Economy: 
This battery would enable an EV to travel from Chicago to St. Louis (300 miles) on a single charge, for less than $10 on average.
Contacts
ARPA-E Program Director: 
Dr. Dane Boysen
Project Contact: 
Dr. Yuriy Mikhaylik
Partners
BASF
LBNL
PNNL
Recapping, Inc.
High Energy Density Capacitors
Graphic of Recapping's technology
Program: 
ARPA-E Award: 
$1,000,000
Location: 
Menlo Park, CA
Project Term: 
07/01/2010 to 12/31/2012
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Critical Need: 
Most of today's electric vehicles (EVs) are powered by lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries--the same kind of batteries used in cell phones and laptop computers. Currently, most Li-Ion batteries used in EVs provide a driving range limited to 100 miles on a single charge and account for more than half of the total cost of the vehicle. To compete in the market with gasoline-based vehicles, EVs must cost less and drive farther. An EV that is cost-competitive with gasoline would require a battery with twice the energy storage of today's state-of-the-art Li-Ion battery at 30% of the cost.
Project Innovation + Advantages: 
Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of today's best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.
Impact Summary: 
If successful, Recapping's project would improve the energy storage in capacitors for use in EVs, making them competitive with existing EV battery technologies.
Security: 
Cost-competitive capacitors with energy storage comparable to existing battery technology would enable the widespread use of EVs and renewable energy storage facilities. This would greatly reduce our dependence on foreign oil.
Environment: 
Greater use of EVs would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 28% of which come from the transportation sector.
Economy: 
Diversifying our fuel supply for transportation and electricity production would help stabilize electricity rates for consumers and businesses.
Contacts
ARPA-E Program Director: 
Dr. Dane Boysen
Project Contact: 
Dr. Aram Yang
Partners
Penn State University
Applied Materials
Novel High Energy Density Lithium-Ion Cell Designs via Innovative Manufacturing Process Modules for Cathode and Integrated Separator
Program: 
ARPA-E Award: 
$4,373,990
Location: 
Santa Clara, CA
Project Term: 
07/01/2010 to 09/30/2013
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Critical Need: 
Most of today's electric vehicles (EVs) are powered by lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries--the same kind of batteries used in cell phones and laptop computers. Currently, most Li-Ion batteries used in EVs provide a driving range limited to 100 miles on a single charge and account for more than half of the total cost of the vehicle. To compete in the market with gasoline-based vehicles, EVs must cost less and drive farther. An EV that is cost-competitive with gasoline would require a battery with twice the energy storage of today's state-of-the-art Li-Ion battery at 30% of the cost.
Project Innovation + Advantages: 
Applied Materials is developing new tools for manufacturing Li-Ion batteries that could dramatically increase their performance. Traditionally, the positive and negative terminals of Li-Ion batteries are mixed with glue-like materials called binders, pressed onto electrodes, and then physically kept apart by winding a polymer mesh material between them called a separator. With the Applied Materials system, many of these manually intensive processes will be replaced by next generation coating technology to apply each component. This process will improve product reliability and performance of the cells at a fraction of the current cost. These novel manufacturing techniques will also increase the energy density of the battery and reduce the size of several of the battery's components to free up more space within the cell for storage.
Impact Summary: 
If successful, Applied Materials' new manufacturing process would enable production of low cost, high energy density batteries that improve the driving range and lifespan of EVs, thus making EVs more affordable and attractive to consumers.
Security: 
Increased use of EVs would decrease U.S. dependence on foreign oil--the transportation sector is the dominant source of this dependence.
Environment: 
Greater use of EVs would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 28% of which come from the transportation sector.
Economy: 
Next-generation battery technology could enable EVs to travel from Chicago to St. Louis (300 miles) on a single charge, for less than $10 on average.
Contacts
ARPA-E Program Director: 
Dr. Dane Boysen
Project Contact: 
Ajey Joshi
Partners
A123 Systems, Inc.
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab
Pellion Technologies
Low-Cost Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries with High Energy Density
Graphic of Pellion's technology
Program: 
ARPA-E Award: 
$3,204,080
Location: 
Cambridge, MA
Project Term: 
09/01/2010 to 12/31/2012
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Critical Need: 
Most of today's electric vehicles (EVs) are powered by lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries--the same kind of batteries used in cell phones and laptop computers. Currently, most Li-Ion batteries used in EVs provide a driving range limited to 100 miles on a single charge and account for more than half of the total cost of the vehicle. To compete in the market with gasoline-based vehicles, EVs must cost less and drive farther. An EV that is cost-competitive with gasoline would require a battery with twice the energy storage of today's state-of-the-art Li-Ion battery at 30% of the cost.
Project Innovation + Advantages: 
Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior, delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.
Impact Summary: 
If successful, Pellion Technologies will develop an EV battery that delivers 200% more energy, lasts for thousands of charge and discharge cycles, and costs less than conventional Li-ion batteries.
Security: 
Increased use of EVs would decrease U.S. dependence on foreign oil--the transportation sector is the dominant source of this dependence.
Environment: 
Greater use of EVs would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 28% of which come from the transportation sector.
Economy: 
This battery would enable an EV to travel from Chicago to St. Louis (300 miles) on a single charge, for less than $10 on average.
Contacts
ARPA-E Program Director: 
Dr. Dane Boysen
Project Contact: 
Dr. Robert Doe
Partners
Bar-Ilan
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
PolyPlus Battery Company
Development of Ultra High Specific Energy Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries Based on Protected Lithium Metal Electrodes
Graphic of PolyPlus technology
Program: 
ARPA-E Award: 
$5,396,311
Location: 
Berkeley, CA
Project Term: 
07/01/2010 to 12/31/2012
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Critical Need: 
Most of today's electric vehicles (EVs) are powered by lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries--the same kind of batteries used in cell phones and laptop computers. Currently, most Li-Ion batteries used in EVs provide a driving range limited to 100 miles on a single charge and account for more than half of the total cost of the vehicle. To compete in the market with gasoline-based vehicles, EVs must cost less and drive farther. An EV that is cost-competitive with gasoline would require a battery with twice the energy storage of today's state-of-the-art Li-Ion battery at 30% of the cost.
Project Innovation + Advantages: 
PolyPlus is developing the world's first commercially available rechargeable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery. Li-Air batteries are better than the Li-Ion batteries used in most EVs today because they breathe in air from the atmosphere for use as an active material in the battery, which greatly decreases its weight. Li-Air batteries also store nearly 700% as much energy as traditional Li-Ion batteries. A lighter battery would improve the range of EVs dramatically. PolyPlus is on track to making a critical breakthrough: the first manufacturable protective membrane between its lithium-based negative electrode and the reaction chamber where it reacts with oxygen from the air. This gives the battery the unique ability to recharge by moving lithium in and out of the battery's reaction chamber for storage until the battery needs to discharge once again. Until now, engineers had been unable to create the complex packaging and air-breathing components required to turn Li-Air batteries into rechargeable systems.
Impact Summary: 
If successful, PolyPlus' project would enable EVs to travel 500 miles on a single charge, much further than today's EVs or gasoline-powered cars can go.
Security: 
Increased use of EVs would decrease U.S. dependence on foreign oil--the transportation sector is the dominant source of this dependence.
Environment: 
Greater use of EVs would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 28% of which come from the transportation sector.
Economy: 
This battery would enable an EV to travel from New York City to Raleigh, NC (500 miles) on a single charge, for less than $10 on average.
Contacts
ARPA-E Program Director: 
Dr. Dane Boysen
Project Contact: 
Dr. Steven Visco
Partners
Corning Incorporated

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