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ARPA-E Projects

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Displaying 1 - 72 of 72
Program: 
Project Term: 
03/01/2010 to 06/30/2012
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

1366 Technologies is developing a process to reduce the cost of solar electricity by up to 50% by 2020--from $0.15 per kilowatt hour to less than $0.07. 1366's process avoids the costly step of slicing a large block of silicon crystal into wafers, which turns half the silicon to dust. Instead, the company is producing thin wafers directly from molten silicon at industry-standard sizes, and with efficiencies that compare favorably with today's state-of-the-art technologies. 1366's wafers could directly replace wafers currently on the market, so there would be no interruptions to the delivery of these products to market. As a result of 1366's technology, the cost of silicon wafers could be reduced by 80%.

Program: 
Project Term: 
09/01/2010 to 02/28/2014
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Scientists at 24M Technologies are crossing a Li-Ion battery with a fuel cell to develop a semi-solid flow battery. This system relies on some of the same basic chemistry as a standard Li-Ion battery, but in a flow battery the energy storage material is held in external tanks, so storage capacity is not limited by the size of the battery itself. The design makes it easier to add storage capacity by simply increasing the size of the tanks and adding more paste. In addition, 24M's design also is able to extract more energy from the semi-solid paste than conventional Li-Ion batteries. This creates a cost-effective, energy-dense battery that can improve the driving range of EVs or be used to store energy on the electric grid.
Program: 
Project Term: 
01/03/2017 to 01/02/2020
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

24M Technologies will lead a team to develop low cost, durable, enhanced separators/solid state electrolytes to build batteries using a lithium metal anode. Using a polymer/solid electrolyte ceramic blend, 24M will be able to make a protective layer that will help eliminate side reactions that have previously contributed to performance degradation and provide a robust mechanical barrier to branchlike metal fibers called dendrites. Unimpeded, dendrites can grow to span the space between the negative and positive electrodes, causing a short-circuit. The resulting, large-area lithium electrode sub-assemblies, or LESAs, will be cost-effective solutions that are scalable to high-volume manufacturing while providing a toolbox to further tailor electrode performance.

Program: 
Project Term: 
04/26/2013 to 09/07/2019
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Adaptive Surface Technologies is developing a slippery coating that can be used for a number of technology applications including oil and water pipelines, wastewater treatment systems, solar panels (to prevent dust accumulation), refrigeration (to prevent ice buildup), as well as many other energy-relevant applications. Contamination, build-up of microorganisms, and corrosion of untreated surfaces can lead to inefficiencies in the system. Adaptive Surface Technologies' liquid-based coating is tailored to adhere to and then spread out evenly over a rough surface, forming a completely smooth surface that inhibits buildup. Since it is liquid-based, it can easily repair itself if scratched or damaged, resulting in a stable coating with the potential to significantly outperform conventional technologies, such as Teflon, in friction and drag reduction and in repelling a broad range of contaminants.

Program: 
Project Term: 
11/01/2015 to 12/31/2018
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Aerodyne Research with partners from Stony Brook University, Precision Combustion, Inc., and C-K Engineering, Inc. will design and build a CHP generator based on a small single-cylinder, two-stroke free-piston internal combustion engine. Similar to an automotive internal combustion engine, the proposed system follows the same process: the combustion of natural gas fuel creates a force that moves a piston, transferring chemical energy to mechanical energy used in conjunction with a linear alternator to create electricity. The free-piston configuration used here, instead of a traditional slider-crank mechanism, has the potential to achieve high electrical conversion efficiency. Their design also includes a double-helix spring that replaces the crankshaft flywheel in conventional engines and can store 5-10 times the work output of the engine cycle and operates at high frequency, which is key to high energy density, compact size, low weight, and low cost. The system will also incorporate low temperature, glow plug-assisted homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion, which reduces heat loss from the engine and further increases efficiency.
Program: 
Project Term: 
01/15/2010 to 03/31/2015
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Enzymes are required to break plant biomass down into the fermentable sugars that are used to create biofuel. Currently, costly enzymes must be added to the biofuel production process. Engineering crops to already contain these enzymes will reduce costs and produce biomass that is more easily digested. In fact, enzyme costs alone account for $0.50-$0.75/gallon of the cost of a biomass-derived biofuel like ethanol. Agrivida is genetically engineering plants to contain high concentrations of enzymes that break down cell walls. These enzymes can be "switched on" after harvest so they won't damage the plant while it's growing.

Program: 
Project Term: 
11/30/2015 to 10/31/2019
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

American Superconductor (AMSC) in collaboration with team members Qnergy, Alcoa Howmet, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), MicroCogen Partners, and A.O. Smith Corporation will develop a Free-Piston Stirling engine (FPSE) powered by an ultra-low-emissions natural gas burner for micro-CHP applications. A Stirling engine uses a working gas housed in a sealed environment, in this case the working gas is helium. When heated by the natural gas-fueled burner, the gas expands causing a piston to move and interact with a linear alternator to produce electricity. As the gas cools and contracts, the process resets before repeating again. Advanced Stirling engines endeavor to carefully manage heat inside the system to make the most efficient use of the natural gas energy. The ITC design features free-piston architecture using flexure bearings thus eliminating rubbing parts and allowing for long system life under continuous use. The team will also develop novel materials that enable high-temperature engine operation, further increasing the efficiency of the system.

American Superconductor (AMSC)
Program: 
Project Term: 
05/20/2014 to 10/31/2019
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

American Superconductor (AMSC) is developing a freezer that does not rely on harmful refrigerants and is more energy efficient than conventional systems. Many freezers are based on vapor compression, in which a liquid refrigerant circulates within the freezer, absorbs heat, and then pumps it out into the external environment. Unfortunately, these systems can be expensive and inefficient. ITC's freezer uses helium gas as its refrigerant, representing a safe, affordable, and environmentally friendly approach to cooling. ITC's improvements to the Stirling cycle system could enable the cost-effective mass production of high-efficiency freezers without the use of polluting refrigerants. ITC received a separate award of up to $1,766,702 from the Department of the Navy to help decrease military fuel use.

Program: 
Project Term: 
11/18/2016 to 11/17/2019
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Aspen Aerogels and its partners will develop a cost-effective, silica aerogel-insulated windowpane to retrofit single-pane windows. Silica aerogels are well-known, highly porous materials that are strongly insulating, resisting the flow of heat. The team will advance their silica aerogels to have a combination of high visible light transmittance, low haze, and low thermal conductivity. The team's design consists of an aerogel sheet sandwiched between two glass panes to make a double glazed pane. This silica aerogel-insulated pane will be manufactured using an innovative supercritical drying method to significantly reduce the aerogel drying time, thereby increasing productivity and reducing cost. Aspen Aerogels' windowpane could be used to replace single panes in windows where thickness or weight preclude replacement with common double-pane units and at substantially lower cost.

Program: 
Project Term: 
03/06/2012 to 10/31/2015
Project Status: 
CANCELLED
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Beacon Power is developing a flywheel energy storage system that costs substantially less than existing flywheel technologies. Flywheels store the energy created by turning an internal rotor at high speeds--slowing the rotor releases the energy back to the grid when needed. Beacon Power is redesigning the heart of the flywheel, eliminating the cumbersome hub and shaft typically found at its center. The improved design resembles a flying ring that relies on new magnetic bearings to levitate, freeing it to rotate faster and deliver 400% as much energy as today's flywheels. Beacon Power's flywheels can be linked together to provide storage capacity for balancing the approximately 10% of U.S. electricity that comes from renewable sources each year.
Program: 
Project Term: 
01/01/2014 to 03/31/2015
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
BlazeTech is developing advanced sorting software that uses a specialized camera to distinguish multiple grades of light metal scrap by examining how they reflect different wavelengths of light. Existing identification technologies rely on manual sorting of light metals, which can be inaccurate and slow. BlazeTech's sorting technology would identify scrap metal content based on the way that each light metal appears under BlazeTech's sorting camera, automating the sorting process and enabling more comprehensive metal recycling. The software developed under this program will be used to dramatically improve existing metal sorting systems. This technology offers great potential to improve the efficiency of light metals recycling, as similar techniques have proven successful in other industries, including vegetation surveying and plastics identification.
Boston Electrometallurgical Corporation
Program: 
Project Term: 
05/05/2016 to 07/31/2018
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Boston Electrometallurgical Corporation will develop and scale a one step molten oxide electrolysis process for producing Ti metal directly from the oxide. Titanium oxide is dissolved in a molten oxide, where it is directly and efficiently extracted as molten titanium metal. In this process, electrolysis is used to separate the product from the solution as a bottom layer that can then be removed from the reactor in its molten state. If successful, it could replace the multistep Kroll process with a one-step process that resembles today's aluminum production techniques. If successful, Ti ingots could be produced at cost parity with stainless steel, opening the doorway to industrial waste heat recovery applications and increasing its adoption in commercial aircraft.

Program: 
Project Term: 
04/19/2013 to 03/31/2016
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

The Boston University (BU) team is developing control technology to help grid operators more actively manage power flows and integrate renewables by optimally turning entire power lines on and off in coordination with traditional control of generation and load resources. The control technology being developed would provide grid operators with tools to help manage transmission congestion by identifying the facilities whose on/off status must change to lower generation costs, increase utilization of renewable resources and improve system reliability. The technology is based on fast optimization algorithms for the near to real-time change in the on/off status of transmission facilities and their software implementation.

Program: 
Project Term: 
05/01/2018 to 04/30/2021
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Boston University (BU) will develop an occupancy sensing system to estimate the number of people in commercial spaces and monitor how this number changes over time. Their Computational Occupancy Sensing SYstem (COSSY) will be designed to deliver robust performance by combining data from off-the-shelf sensors and cameras. Data streams will be interpreted by advanced detection algorithms to provide an occupancy estimate. All processing will be performed locally to mitigate security concerns. The system will be designed to accommodate various room sizes and geometries. Occupancy data will be sent to the building control system to manage the heating, cooling, and air flow in order to maximize building energy efficiency and provide optimal human comfort. Energy costs of heating and cooling can be reduced by up to 30% by training the building management system to deliver the right temperature air when and where it is needed. The system's use of components readily available in the market today promises low cost and fast commercialization.

C.A. Goudey & Associates
Program: 
Project Term: 
04/06/2018 to 04/05/2021
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

The C.A. Goudey and Associates team will lead a MARINER Category 2 project to develop an autonomous marine tow vessel to enable deployment of large-scale seaweed farming systems. Essentially all marine transportation systems rely on manned vessels. These systems are labor-intensive and depend on boats and ships that are a poor match to the tasks associated with deployment and operations of large-scale seaweed farming systems. This project seeks to remove the costs and requirements of manned systems through the use of slow-moving, autonomous tow vessels. Such vessels will enable macroalgae farming systems over larger ocean areas by eliminating the schedule constraints of a manned vessel, and the misapplication of high-speed boats to towing. Once operational, autonomous vessels could be used for a number of farming tasks such as towing pre-seeded longlines to the farm, transporting harvested seaweed back to collection points, or relocation of critical marine infrastructure. Where manned activities are essential, farm personnel can return to shore while the products of their labor make the same journey at a slower pace and significantly lower costs. If successful, this towing solution can be integrated into complete macroalgae farming systems to reduce high operating costs attributable to fuel and labor.

Program: 
Project Term: 
08/15/2016 to 08/14/2019
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

DNV GL together with its partners, Geli and Group NIRE, will develop an Internet of Energy (IoEn) platform for the automated scheduling, aggregation, dispatch, and performance validation of network optimized DERs and controllable loads. The IoEn platform will simultaneously manage both system-level regulation and distribution-level support functions to facilitate large-scale integration of distributed generation onto the grid. The IoEn will demonstrate a novel and scalable approach for the fast registration and automated dispatch of DERs by combining DNV GL's power system simulation tools and independent third-party validation with Geli's networking, control, and market balancing software. The platform will demonstrate the ability of customer-sited DERs to provide grid frequency regulation and distribution reliability functions with minimal impact to their local behind-the-meter demand management applications. The IoEn will be demonstrated and tested at Group NIRE's utility-connected microgrid test facility in Lubbock, Texas, where it will be integrated with local utility monitoring, control and data acquisition systems. By increasing the number of local devices able to connect and contribute to the IoEn, this project aims to increase renewables penetration above 50% while maintaining required levels of grid performance.

Program: 
Project Term: 
07/16/2018 to 01/15/2021
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Endeveo will develop an occupancy sensor system to accurately determine the presence of occupants in residential buildings and enable temperature setbacks to provide energy savings of 30% per year. Their technique uses standard Wi-Fi-equipped devices, such as routers, to monitor an environment using the wireless channel state information (CSI) collected by these devices and occupancy-centric machine learning algorithms to determine occupancy from changes in CSI. The developed algorithms will distinguish between humans and pets, sense presence even when occupants are stationary for extended periods of time, and possess the flexibility to adapt to activities of daily living such as furniture being moved or opening doors. While their sensor hardware components use so-called "Wi-Fi protocols" to wirelessly probe an environment, they do not require nor utilize any internet access, Wi-Fi or otherwise. If successful, the system could offer cost-effective occupancy sensing to homes with and without internet service or broadband access.

Program: 
Project Term: 
04/01/2010 to 12/31/2013
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

FastCAP Systems is improving the performance of an ultracapacitor--a battery-like electronic device that can complement, and possibly even replace, an HEV or EV battery pack. Ultracapacitors have many advantages over conventional batteries, including long lifespans (over 1 million cycles, as compared to 10,000 for conventional batteries) and better durability. Ultracapacitors also charge more quickly than conventional batteries, and they release energy more quickly. However, ultracapacitors have fallen short of batteries in one key metric: energy density--high energy density means more energy storage. FastCAP is redesigning the ultracapacitor's internal structure to increase its energy density. Ultracapacitors traditionally use electrodes made of irregularly shaped, porous carbon. FastCAP's ultracapacitors are made of tiny, aligned carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide a regular path for ions moving in and out of the ultracapacitor's electrode, increasing the overall efficiency and energy density of the device.

FloDesign Wind Turbine
Program: 
Project Term: 
02/22/2010 to 03/31/2013
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

FloDesign's innovative wind turbine, inspired by the design of jet engines, could deliver 300% more power than existing wind turbines of the same rotor diameter by extracting more energy over a larger area. FloDesign's unique shrouded design expands the wind capture area, and the mixing vortex downstream allows more energy to flow through the rotor without stalling the turbine. The unique rotor and shrouded design also provide significant opportunity for mass production and simplified assembly, enabling mid-scale turbines (approximately 100 kW) to produce power at a cost that is comparable to larger-scale conventional turbines.

Program: 
Project Term: 
07/31/2019 to 01/30/2022
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts

Form Energy will develop a long-duration energy storage system that takes advantage of the low cost and high abundance of sulfur in a water-based solution. Previous MIT research demonstrated that aqueous sulfur flow batteries represent the lowest chemical cost among rechargeable batteries. However, these systems have relatively low efficiency. Conversely, numerous rechargeable battery chemistries with higher efficiency have high chemical costs. The solution requires low chemical cost, high efficiency, and streamlined architecture. The team will pursue several competing strategies and ultimately select a single approach to develop a prototype system. Focus areas include developing anode and cathode formulations, membranes, and physical system designs.

Program: 
Project Term: 
09/13/2010 to 04/01/2011
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
General Compression has developed a transformative, near-isothermal compressed air energy storage system (GCAES) that prevents air from heating up during compression and cooling down during expansion. When integrated with renewable generation, such as a wind farm, intermittent energy can be stored in compressed air in salt caverns or pressurized tanks. When electricity is needed, the process is reversed and the compressed air is expanded to produce electricity. Unlike conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) projects, no gas is burned to convert the stored high-pressure air back into electricity. The result of this breakthrough is an ultra-efficient, fully shapeable, 100% renewable and carbon-free power product. The GCAES system can provide high quality electricity and ancillary services by effectively integrating renewables onto the grid at a cost that is competitive with gas, coal, and nuclear generation.
Program: 
Project Term: 
06/01/2017 to 12/31/2019
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Giner will develop advanced membrane and catalysts electrolyzer components that can electrochemically generate ammonia using water, nitrogen and intermittent renewable energy sources. Their electrochemical reactor operates at a much lower pressure and temperature than conventional methods, which can lead to significant energy savings. Some of their key innovations include metal nitride catalysts and high temperature poly(aryl piperidinium) anion exchange membranes (AEM) to boost the ammonia production rate and enhance process stability. The components will be integrated into Giner's existing water electrolysis platform to maximize the overall system efficiency. The project team has a diverse set of expertise which it will use to develop advanced catalysts and membranes; to integrate a water electrolyzer that can be easily manufactured; and to perform a techno-economic analysis that addresses the use of renewable energy sources. When completed, the system will decrease ammonia production capital and operating costs significantly compared to conventional processes.
Ginkgo Bioworks
Program: 
Project Term: 
07/16/2010 to 01/15/2014
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Ginkgo Bioworks is bypassing photosynthesis and engineering E. coli to directly use carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce biofuels. E. coli doesn't naturally metabolize CO2, but Ginkgo Bioworks is manipulating and incorporating the genes responsible for CO2 metabolism into the microorganism. By genetically modifying E. coli, Ginkgo Bioworks will enhance its rate of CO2 consumption and liquid fuel production. Ginkgo Bioworks is delivering CO2 to E. coli as formic acid, a simple industrial chemical that provides energy and CO2 to the bacterial system.
Program: 
Project Term: 
02/03/2014 to 03/06/2017
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
GreenLight Biosciences is developing a cell-free bioreactor that can convert large quantities of methane to fuel in one step. This technology integrates biological and chemical processes into a single process by separating and concentrating the biocatalysts from the host microorganisms. This unique "cell-free" approach is anticipated to improve the productivity of the reactor without increasing cost. GreenLight's system can be erected onsite without the need for massive, costly equipment. The process uses natural gas and wellhead pressure to generate the power needed to run the facility. Any carbon dioxide that is released in the process is captured, condensed and pumped back into the well to maintain reservoir pressure and reduce emissions. This technology could enable a scalable, mobile facility that can be transported to remote natural gas wells as needed.
Program: 
Project Term: 
08/01/2018 to 12/31/2019
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Program: 
Project Term: 
07/22/2019 to 07/21/2022
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Program: 
Project Term: 
02/01/2013 to 03/25/2017
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Harvard University is developing an innovative grid-scale flow battery to store electricity from renewable sources. Flow batteries store energy in external tanks instead of within the battery container, permitting larger amounts of stored energy at lower cost per kWh. Harvard is designing active material for a flow battery that uses small, inexpensive organic molecules in aqueous electrolyte. Relying on low-cost organic materials, Harvard's innovative storage device concept would yield one or more systems that may be developed by their partner, Sustainable Innovations, LLC, into viable grid-scale electrical energy storage systems.
Program: 
Project Term: 
06/01/2017 to 11/30/2018
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Harvard University in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories will develop a transistor-less 16kW DC to DC converter boosting a 0.5kV DC input to 8kV that is scalable to 100kW. If successful, the transistor-less DC to DC converter could improve the performance of power electronics for electric vehicles, commercial power supplies, renewable energy systems, grid operations, and other applications. Converting DC to DC is a two-step process that traditionally uses fast-switching transistors to convert a DC input to an AC signal before the signal is rectified to a DC output. The Harvard and Sandia team will improve the process by replacing the active, fast-switching transistors with a slow switch followed by a passive, nonlinear transmission line (NLTL). The NLTL is a ladder network of passive components (inductors and diodes) that provide a nonlinear output with voltage. The combination of the nonlinear behavior with dispersion converts a quasi-DC input into a series of sharper and taller (amplified) voltage pulses called solitons, thus executing the DC to AC conversion without the use of active, fast-switching transistors. The NLTL will be followed by a high breakdown voltage silicon carbide and/or gallium nitride diode-based accumulator that converts the series of solitons to a DC output. Replacing the fast-switching transistors with a slow switch and a NLTL addresses the cost, size, efficiency, and reliability issues associated with fast switching based converters. Diodes also cost less and last longer because they are simpler structures than transistors and use no dielectrics. Efficiency, cost, and reliability improvements provided by a NLTL-based power converter will drastically benefit commercial power supplies, industrial motors, electric vehicles, data centers, the electric grid, and renewable electric power generation such as solar and wind.

Program: 
Project Term: 
07/01/2010 to 09/30/2013
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Harvard University is engineering a self-contained, scalable electrofuels production system that can directly generate liquid fuels from bacteria, carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and sunlight. Harvard is genetically engineering bacteria called Shewanella, so the bacteria can sit directly on electrical conductors and absorb electrical current. This current, which is powered by solar panels, gives the bacteria the energy they need to process CO2 into liquid fuels. The Harvard team pumps this CO2 into the system, in addition to water and other nutrients needed to grow the bacteria. Harvard is also engineering the bacteria to produce fuel molecules that have properties similar to gasoline or diesel fuel--making them easier to incorporate into the existing fuel infrastructure. These molecules are designed to spontaneously separate from the water-based culture that the bacteria live in and to be used directly as fuel without further chemical processing once they're pumped out of the tank.
Program: 
Project Term: 
02/05/2016 to 05/19/2017
Project Status: 
CANCELLED
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
INFINIUM will convert low-grade magnesium scrap into material of sufficient purity for motor vehicle components by a novel high-efficiency process using less than 1 kWh/kg magnesium product. Other magnesium purification technologies such as distillation and electrorefining use 5-10 kWh/kg, and primary production uses 40-100 kWh/kg. This is also a high-speed continuous process, with much lower labor and capital costs than other batch purification technologies. This technology could enable cost-effective recycling of magnesium, converting low-grade scrap metal into high-purity magnesium at low cost and significantly lower energy consumption, and could also enable new classes of primary production technology.
Program: 
Project Term: 
12/12/2013 to 12/10/2016
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
INFINIUM is developing a technology to produce light metals such as aluminum and titanium using an electrochemical cell design that could reduce energy consumption associated with these processes by over 50%. The key component of this innovation lies within the anode assembly used to electrochemically refine these light metals from their ores. While traditional processes use costly graphite anodes that are reacted to produce CO2 during refining, INFINIUM's anode can use much cheaper fuels such as natural gas, and produce a high-purity oxygen by-product. Revenue from this by-product could significantly affect aluminum production economics. Traditional cell designs also waste a great deal of heat due to the necessity of keeping the reactor open to the air while contaminated CO2 rapidly exits the chamber. Since INFINIUM's anode keeps the oxygen or CO2 anode gas away from the main reactor chamber, the entire system may be far more effectively insulated.
Program: 
Project Term: 
01/16/2017 to 07/15/2019
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Ionic Materials will develop a lithium metal (not lithium ion) rechargeable battery cell that employs a novel solid polymer electrolyte that enables the world's first truly safe lithium metal rechargeable battery cell. Scientists at the City University of New York have found that Ionic Material's proprietary ionic conducting polymer is the most highly lithium conducting solid state polymer material ever measured (at room temperature). This polymer has high ionic conductivity across a range of temperatures, can be reliably extruded into very thin films, is non-flammable, has attractive mechanical properties, and is compatible with a variety of different anodes and cathodes, including lithium metal. This polymer also has the potential to address a number of challenges associated with lithium metal anodes, including electrochemical stability and the ability to cycle without the growth of branchlike metal fibers called dendrites. If left unimpeded, dendrites can grow to span the space between the negative and positive electrodes, causing short-circuiting. Ionic Materials' polymer electrolyte will eliminate the risk of battery shorting due to dendrites, and speed the safe implementation of solid-state, lithium metal anode batteries. Such cells are of particular interest due to their extremely high specific energy (400 Wh/kg or more versus 285 Wh/kg for the best Li-Ion cells today) and their potential to reduce cell costs below $100/kWh, a commonly cited tipping point for the mass adoption of electric vehicles.

Program: 
Project Term: 
04/01/2019 to 03/31/2021
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL)
Program: 
Project Term: 
05/01/2018 to 07/15/2019
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), located at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, will lead a MARINER Category 1 project to design and develop a cultivation system for the tropical seaweed Eucheuma isiforme to produce biomass for biofuels. Eucheuma is a commercially valuable species of "red" macroalgae, primarily cultivated in Asia, which has been difficult to propagate in a cost-effective manner. Cultivation of Eucheuma is labor intensive -- making up almost 70% of the production costs -- and is limited to easily accessible areas near shore. The MBL team will design and development a farm system that will mechanize the seeding and harvesting process to drastically reduce labor costs, and allow farms to be deployed in offshore areas to greatly expand large-scale production and increase biomass yield per dollar of capital. The ultimate goal of the project is to cost-effectively produce biomass in underutilized areas of the Gulf of Mexico and tropical U.S. Exclusive Economic Zones where year-round production is possible. MBL will investigate opportunities to deploy an experimental farm in Puerto Rico where a wide range of exposure to prevailing winds and waves creates an ideal testbed to understand the influence of environmental conditions on biological, physiological, and chemical properties of cultivated macroalgae. If successful, the project can disrupt the current practices in the red macroalgae market and reduce reliance on imports from foreign sources, and ultimately scale to production levels relevant for bioenergy production.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Program: 
Project Term: 
05/29/2019 to 05/28/2022
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Program: 
Project Term: 
02/03/2014 to 06/30/2017
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
The Bioinformatics and Metabolic Engineering Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) led by Prof. Greg Stephanopoulos will develop a comprehensive process to directly convert methane into a usable transportation fuel in a single step. MIT's unique technologies integrate methane activation with fuel synthesis, two distinct processes required to convert methane that are typically performed separately. Today, activating methane prior to converting it to useful fuel is a high-temperature, energy-intensive process. MIT's unique approach would use nitrate instead of oxygen to oxidize the methane, which could increase the energy efficiency of methane activation and ultimately convert it to fuel. Further, MIT will investigate the use of zeolite catalysts that have the potential to activate methane and convert it to methanol at very high efficiencies.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Program: 
Project Term: 
09/01/2010 to 12/31/2013
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is teaming with Georgia Institute of Technology, Dartmouth College, and the University of Pennsylvania to create more efficient power circuits for energy-efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs) through advances in 3 related areas. First, the team is using semiconductors made of high-performing gallium nitride grown on a low-cost silicon base (GaN-on-Si). These GaN-on-Si semiconductors conduct electricity more efficiently than traditional silicon semiconductors. Second, the team is developing new magnetic materials and structures to reduce the size and increase the efficiency of an important LED power component, the inductor. This advancement is important because magnetics are the largest and most expensive part of a circuit. Finally, the team is creating an entirely new circuit design to optimize the performance of the new semiconductors and magnetic devices it is using.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Program: 
Project Term: 
06/01/2013 to 12/31/2014
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is developing a water treatment system to treat contaminated water from hydraulic fracking and seawater. There is a critical need for small to medium-sized, low-powered, low-cost water treatment technologies, particularly for regions lacking centralized water and energy infrastructure. Conventional water treatment methods, such as reverse osmosis, are not effective for most produced water clean up based on the high salt levels resulting from fracking. MIT's water treatment system will remove high-levels of typical water contaminants such as salt, metals, and microorganisms. The water treatment system is based on low-powered generation enabling efficient on-demand, on-site potable water production. The process allows for a 50% water recovery rate and is cost-competitive with conventional water treatment technology. MIT's water treatment device would require less power than competing technologies and has important applications for mining, oil and gas production, and water treatment for remote locations.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Program: 
Project Term: 
07/15/2010 to 03/31/2014
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is using carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen generated from electricity to produce natural oils that can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels. MIT has designed a 2-stage biofuel production system. In the first stage, hydrogen and CO2 are fed to a microorganism capable of converting these feedstocks to a 2-carbon compound called acetate. In the second stage, acetate is delivered to a different microorganism that can use the acetate to grow and produce oil. The oil can be removed from the reactor tank and chemically converted to various hydrocarbons. The electricity for the process could be supplied from novel means currently in development, or more proven methods such as the combustion of municipal waste, which would also generate the required CO2 and enhance the overall efficiency of MIT's biofuel-production system.

Program: 
Project Term: 
12/11/2015 to 09/10/2018
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) will develop and test its "Sustainable Travel Incentives with Prediction, Optimization and Personalization" (TRIPOD), a system that could incentivize travelers to pursue specific routes, modes of travel, departure times, vehicle types, and driving styles in order to reduce energy use. TRIPOD relies on an app-based travel incentive tool designed to influence users' travel choices by offering them real-time information and rewards. MIT researchers will use an open-source simulation platform, SimMobility, and an energy model, TripEnergy, to test TRIPOD. The system model, which will simulate the Greater Boston area, will be able to dynamically measure energy use as changes to the network and travelers' behavior occur. The team's system model will be linked with a control architecture that will evaluate energy savings and traveler satisfaction with different incentive structures. The control architecture will present users with personalized options via a smartphone app, and it will include a reward points system to incentivize users to adopt energy-efficient travel options. Reward points, or tokens, could be redeemed for prizes or discounts at participating vendors, or could be transferred amongst users in a social network.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Program: 
Project Term: 
07/15/2010 to 10/01/2013
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is using solar-derived hydrogen and common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into biofuel. This bacteria already has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. MIT is engineering the bacteria to use hydrogen to convert CO2 directly into liquid transportation fuels. Hydrogen is a flammable gas, so the MIT team is building an innovative reactor system that will safely house the bacteria and gas mixture during the fuel-creation process. The system will pump in precise mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and CO2, and the online fuel-recovery system will continuously capture and remove the biofuel product.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Program: 
Project Term: 
12/15/2015 to 04/30/2019
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with partner Arizona State University will develop a new concept for PV power generation that achieves the 30% conversion efficiency associated with traditional concentrated PV systems while maintaining the low cost, low profile, and lightweight of conventional FPV modules. MIT aims to combine three technologies to achieve their goals: a dispersive lens system, laterally arrayed multiple bandgap (LAMB) solar cells, and a low-cost power management system. The dispersive lens concentrates and separates light that passes through it, providing 400-fold concentration for direct sunlight and 3-fold concentration for diffuse sunlight. The dispersive lens is a thin layer consisting of inexpensive, lightweight materials that can be manufactured at low cost using plastic molding, an improvement over traditional methods. The lens focuses the direct light onto the array of LAMB solar cells, while also focusing the diffuse light onto common PV cells integrated beneath the LAMB array. The power management system combines power from multiple cells into a single output so that the power from a panel of LAMB arrays can be processed with grid-interface power electronics, enabling as much as 20% additional energy capture in applications where the roof is partially shaded.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Program: 
Project Term: 
01/01/2016 to 04/09/2020
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with partner Sandia National Laboratories will develop a micro-CPV system. The team's approach integrates optical concentrating elements with micro-scale solar cells to enhance efficiency, reduce material and fabrication costs, and significantly reduce system size. The team's key innovation is the use of traditional silicon PV cells for more than one function. These traditional cells lay on a silicon substrate that has etched reflective cavities with high-performance micro-PV cells on the cavity floor. Light entering the system will hit a primary concentrator that then directs light into the reflective cavities and towards the high performance micro-PV cells. Diffuse light, which most CPV technologies do not capture, is collected by the lower performance silicon PV cells. The proposed technology could provide 40-55% more energy than conventional FPV and 15-40% more energy than traditional CPV with a significantly reduced system cost, because of the ability to collect both direct and diffuse light in a thin form factor.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Program: 
Project Term: 
02/04/2019 to 02/03/2022
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Program: 
Project Term: 
07/01/2010 to 01/31/2013
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Siemens Corporation are developing a process to separate CO2 from the exhaust of coal-fired power plants by using electrical energy to chemically activate and deactivate sorbents--materials that absorb gases. The team found that certain sorbents bond to CO2 when they are activated by electrical energy and then transported through a specialized separator that deactivates the molecule and releases it for storage. This method directly uses the electricity from the power plant, which is a more efficient but more expensive form of energy than heat, though the ease and simplicity of integrating it into existing coal-fired power plants reduces the overall cost of the technology. This process could cost as low as $31 per ton of CO2 stored.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Program: 
Project Term: 
01/15/2010 to 09/30/2013
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Led by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) professor Donald Sadoway, the Electroville project team is creating a community-scale electricity storage device using new materials and a battery design inspired by the aluminum production process known as smelting. A conventional battery includes a liquid electrolyte and a solid separator between its 2 solid electrodes. MIT's battery contains liquid metal electrodes and a molten salt electrolyte. Because metals and salt don't mix, these 3 liquids of different densities naturally separate into layers, eliminating the need for a solid separator. This efficient design significantly reduces packaging materials, which reduces cost and allows more space for storing energy than conventional batteries offer. MIT's battery also uses cheap, earth-abundant, domestically available materials and is more scalable. By using all liquids, the design can also easily be resized according to the changing needs of local communities.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Program: 
Project Term: 
11/21/2011 to 11/30/2014
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is developing efficient heat storage materials for use in solar and nuclear power plants. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night--when the sun's not out--to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. MIT is designing nanostructured heat storage materials that can store a large amount of heat per unit mass and volume. To do this, MIT is using phase-change materials, which absorb a large amount of latent heat to melt from solid to liquid. MIT's heat storage materials are designed to melt at high temperatures and conduct heat well--this makes them efficient at storing and releasing heat and enhances the overall efficiency of the thermal storage and energy-generation process. MIT's low-cost heat storage materials also have a long life cycle, which further enhances their efficiency.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Program: 
Project Term: 
07/01/2017 to 10/15/2019
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) will develop a unified optical communication technology for use in datacenter optical interconnects. Compared to existing interconnect solutions, the proposed approach exhibits high energy efficiency and large bandwidth density, as well as a low-cost packaging design. Specifically, the team aims to develop novel photonic material, device, and heterogeneously integrated interconnection technologies that are scalable across chip-, board-, and rack-interconnect hierarchy levels. The MIT design uses an optical bridge to connect silicon semiconductors to flexible ribbons that carry light waves. The optical bridge scheme employs single-mode optical waveguides with small modal areas to minimize interconnect footprint, increase bandwidth density, and lower power consumption by using active devices with small junction area and capacitance. The architecture builds all the active photonic components (such as semiconductor lasers, modulators, and detectors) on the optical bridge platform to achieve low energy-per-bit connections. After developing the new photonic packaging technologies, and interconnection architectures, the team's final task will be to fabricate and test a prototype interconnect platform to validate the system models and demonstrate high bandwidth, low power, low bit-error-rate data transmission using the platform.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Program: 
Project Term: 
12/13/2011 to 09/30/2016
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is developing a low-cost, compact, high-capacity, advanced thermo-adsorptive battery (ATB) for effective climate control of EVs. The ATB provides both heating and cooling by taking advantage of the materials' ability to adsorb a significant amount of water. This efficient battery system design could offer up as much as a 30% increase in driving range compared to current EV climate control technology. The ATB provides high-capacity thermal storage with little-to-no electrical power consumption. MIT is also looking to explore the possibility of shifting peak electricity loads for cooling and heating in a variety of other applications, including commercial and residential buildings, data centers, and telecom facilities.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Program: 
Project Term: 
06/17/2014 to 09/16/2017
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is developing a hybrid solar converter that integrates a thermal absorber and solar cells into a layered stack, allowing some portions of sunlight to be converted directly to electricity and the rest to be stored as heat for conversion when needed most. MIT's design focuses concentrated sunlight onto metal fins coated with layers that reflect a portion of the sunlight while absorbing the rest. The absorbed light is converted to heat and stored in a thermal fluid for conversion to mechanical energy by a heat engine. The reflected light is directed to solar cells and converted directly into electricity. This way, each portion of the solar spectrum is directed to the conversion system where it can be most effectively used. The sunlight passes through a transparent microporous gel that also insulates each of the components so that the maximum energy can be extracted from both the heat-collecting metal fins and the solar cells. This unique stack design could utilize the full solar spectrum efficiently and enable the dispatch of electricity at any time of the day.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Program: 
Project Term: 
01/09/2012 to 01/08/2015
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
MIT is developing a thermal energy storage device that captures energy from the sun; this energy can be stored and released at a later time when it is needed most. Within the device, the absorption of sunlight causes the solar thermal fuel's photoactive molecules to change shape, which allows energy to be stored within their chemical bonds. A trigger is applied to release the stored energy as heat, where it can be converted into electricity or used directly as heat. The molecules would then revert to their original shape, and can be recharged using sunlight to begin the process anew. MIT's technology would be 100% renewable, rechargeable like a battery, and emissions-free. Devices using these solar thermal fuels--called HybriSol--can also be used without a grid infrastructure for applications such as de-icing, heating, cooking, and water purification.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Program: 
Project Term: 
05/15/2014 to 07/31/2015
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is developing a high-efficiency solar cell grown on a low-cost silicon wafer, which incorporates a micro-scale heat management system. The team will employ a novel fabrication process to ensure compatibility between the indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) solar cell and an inexpensive silicon wafer template, which will reduce cell costs. MIT will also develop a color-selective filter, designed to split incoming concentrated sunlight into two components. One component will be sent to the solar cells and immediately converted into electricity and the other will be sent to a thermal receiver to be captured as heat. This will allow the simultaneous availability of electricity and heat. By leveraging the InGaP system, MIT's solar cells will be more tolerant to high temperature operation than today's PV cells and allow recovery of more useful higher temperature waste heat through the micro-scale heat management system. The solar cell and heat recovery system will enable more efficient use of the entire solar spectrum to produce dispatchable renewable electricity.
Program: 
Project Term: 
10/22/2015 to 12/31/2018
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Metis Design Corporation (MDC) with Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory will develop a Brayton cycle engine for residential use to produce heat and electricity. To begin the cycle, air is drawn into the system where it is compressed and pressurized. This compressed air is then heated in a recuperator and introduced in to the combustion chamber. Fuel is injected in to the combustion chamber and subsequently the air-fuel mixture is ignited. The high temperature exhaust gases then expand through a turbine, providing some of the work that drives the original compressor and the remainder produces electricity in a generator. Other innovations include adding a rotating vaneless diffuser to the compression process to reduce viscous losses that would normally reduce the efficiency of small compressors. The design also includes a high-efficiency recuperator to capture waste heat from the turbine exhaust and a low swirl burner to reduce emissions.
Newton Energy Group
Program: 
Project Term: 
04/11/2016 to 07/19/2019
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

The team led by Newton Energy Group will lead the Gas-Electric Co-Optimization (GECO) project to improve coordination of wholesale natural gas and power operators both at the physical and market levels. The team's approach uses mathematical methods and computational techniques that have revolutionized the field of optimal control. These methods will be applied to natural gas pipeline networks, and the final deliverable will consist of three major components. First, they will model and optimize intra-day pipeline operations represented by realistic models of gas network flow. Next, the team will develop economic theory and computation algorithms for the pricing of natural gas delivered to end users, in particular to gas-fired power plants. Finally, they will combine these two analytical components to design practical market mechanisms for efficient coordination of gas and electric systems. The goal of efficient market design is to develop a mechanism under which access to pipeline capacity will be provided on the basis of its economic value as determined by gas buyers and sellers, and not on the current allocation of physical capacity rights. The tool guarantees natural gas will be available when power plants need it, and that the power produced can be sold to consumers at a price sufficient to cover the cost of the natural gas.

Program: 
Project Term: 
09/01/2016 to 12/31/2017
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Northeastern University, in partnership with the Ames Laboratory, will evaluate a range of new magnetocaloric compounds (AlT2X2) for potential application in room-temperature magnetic cooling. Magnetic refrigeration is an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional vapor-compression cooling technology. The magnetocaloric effect is triggered by application and removal of an applied magnetic field--adjusting the magnetic field translates into an adjustment in the temperature of the material. The benchmark magnetocaloric materials are based on the rare earth metal gadolinium (Gd), but gadolinium is scarce in the earth's crust and prohibitively expensive. Other magnetocaloric materials have similar rarity and cost constraints, or are brittle and undergo large volume changes during magnetic transition. Volume changes are problematic because a magnetocaloric working material must maintain mechanical and magnetic integrity over 300 million cycles in a ten-year lifetime. The Northeastern-led team is proposing to explore new magnetocaloric materials, AlT2X2 (where T=Fe, Mn, and/or Co, and X = B and/or C) comprised of abundant, non-toxic elements that can undergo a structural transition near room temperature. The material is projected to meet or exceed the performance of other candidate magnetocaloric materials due to its potential ease of fabrication, corrosion resistance, high mechanical integrity maintained through caloric phase change, and low heat capacity that fosters effective heat transfer. The project objectives are to ascertain the most promising compositions and magnetic field and temperature combinations to realize the optimal magnetocaloric response in this compound.

Program: 
Project Term: 
12/06/2016 to 12/05/2017
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Northeastern University will develop a new class of universal power converters that can be used in a wide range of applications including renewable energy systems, automotive, and manufacturing technologies. Northeastern will focus the project on the design, simulation, prototyping, and experimental evaluation for PV systems. This project proposes a new class of converters that can both step up and step down the voltage. This converter uses a very small film capacitor for transferring the power from the input to the output. The proposed technology eliminates the need for electrolytic capacitors, and can double the lifetime and reliability of power converters. The power density of this class of power converters is also high since it can use an integrated, single-phase, high-frequency transformer instead of heavy and bulky low-frequency transformers. In this project, two 3kW prototypes will be fabricated and tested. The first will use silicon insulated-gate bipolar transistors and its switching frequency will be below 10kHz. The second prototype will employ silicon carbide (SiC) metal oxide semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) with the target switching frequency at 50kHz. Significant reduction (6X) in inverter weight and improvement in inverter efficiency (> 1.5%) is expected in the proposed solution that combines the novel circuit topology and the SiC transistors over traditional PV inverters.

Northeastern University
Program: 
Project Term: 
02/24/2012 to 12/31/2013
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Northeastern University is developing bulk quantities of rare-earth-free permanent magnets with an iron-nickel crystal structure for use in the electric motors of renewable power generators and EVs. These materials could offer magnetic properties that are equivalent to today's best commercial magnets, but with a significant cost reduction and diminished environmental impact. This iron-nickel crystal structure, which is only found naturally in meteorites and developed over billions of years in space, will be artificially synthesized by the Northeastern University team. Its material structure will be replicated with the assistance of alloying elements introduced to help it achieve superior magnetic properties. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate bulk magnetic properties that can be fabricated at the industrial scale.
Program: 
Project Term: 
03/13/2019 to 03/12/2022
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Northeastern University
Program: 
Project Term: 
12/21/2017 to 12/20/2020
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Northeastern University will develop a new class of universal power converters that use the fast switching and high breakdown voltage properties of silicon carbide (SiC) switches to significantly reduce system weight, volume, cost, power loss, and failure rates. Northeastern's proposed 10 kW SiC based high-frequency converter topology minimizes the size of passive components that are used for power transfer, and replaces electrolytic capacitors with short lifetimes with film capacitors. The proposed universal converter can be used for transferring power from any type of source to any type of load. It can be used when the instantaneous values of input and output power do not match even without having large passive components, or increasing the number of passive components. If successful, the proposed converter and innovative control strategy has the potential to create a new paradigm in power electronics that could influence numerous applications, such as electric vehicles, wind energy systems, photovoltaic systems, industrial motor drives, residential variable frequency drive systems, and nanogrid applications.

Program: 
Project Term: 
09/01/2010 to 12/31/2012
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior, delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.
Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI)
Program: 
Project Term: 
04/16/2015 to 12/31/2018
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSI), in conjunction with Heath Consultants Inc., Princeton University, the University of Houston, and Thorlabs Quantum Electronics, Inc., will miniaturize their laser-based Remote Methane Leak Detector (RMLD) and integrate it with PSI's miniature unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), known as the InstantEye, to create the RMLD-Sentry. The measurement system is planned to be fully autonomous, providing technical and cost advantages compared to manual leak detection methods. The team anticipates that the system would have the ability to measure ethane, as well as methane, which would allow it to distinguish biogenic from thermogenic sources. The RMLD-Sentry is planned to locate wellpad leak sources and quantify emission rates by periodically surveying the wellpad, circling the facility at a low altitude, and dynamically changing its flight pattern to focus in on leak sources. When not in the air, RMLD-Sentry would monitors emissions around the perimeter of the site. If methane is detected, the UAV would self-deploy and search the wellpad until the leak location is identified and flow rate is quantified using algorithms to be developed by the team. PSI's design is anticipated to facilitate up to a 95% reduction in methane emissions at natural gas sites at an annualized cost of about $2,250 a year - a fraction of the cost of current systems that allow for continuous monitoring. In addition to requiring less manpower for continuous monitoring, the team expects to develop techniques to reduce manufacturing costs for the laser sources by applying economies of scale and streamlined manufacturing processes.
Program: 
Project Term: 
02/11/2013 to 08/10/2014
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
RamGoss is using innovative device designs and high-performance materials to develop utility-scale electronic switches that would significantly outperform today's state-of-the-art devices. Switches are the fundamental building blocks of electronic devices, controlling the electrical energy that flows around an electrical circuit. Today's best electronic switches for large power applications are bulky and inefficient, which leads to higher cost and wasted power. RamGoss is optimizing new, low-cost materials and developing a new, completely different switch designs. Combined, these innovations would increase the efficiency and reduce the overall size and cost of power converters for a variety of electronic devices and grid-scale applications, including electric vehicle (EV) chargers, large-scale wind plants, and solar power arrays.
Program: 
Project Term: 
01/19/2016 to 04/30/2017
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics is conducting early-stage research to extend operating temperatures of industrial ceramics in steam-containing atmospheres up to 1,500 °C. Materials that are able to adequately withstand these punishing conditions are needed to create durable solar fuel reactors. The most attractive material based on high-temperature strength and thermal shock resistance is sintered (the process of compacting solid material without melting it) silicon carbide (SiC). However, the highly reactive H2O/H2/CO/CO2 atmosphere within a solar reactor causes most industrial ceramics, including SiC, to degrade at temperatures above 1,200 °C. At those temperatures volatile reaction products are formed, which continually eat away at the integrity of the reactor walls. The Saint-Gobain team is conducting research along three lines of inquiry: 1) Creating high-temperature coatings for the SiC material; 2) Creating "self-healing" SiC surfaces which are created via an oxidation reaction on an ongoing basis as the surface layer is damaged; and 3) Testing alternative ceramic materials which could be more robust. The results of the three lines of inquiry will be evaluated based on stability modeling and thermal cycling testing (i.e. repeatedly heating and cooling the materials) under simulated conditions. As an ARPA-E IDEAS project, this research is at a very early stage. If successful, the technology could potentially result in significant energy and cost savings to the U.S. economy by allowing liquid transportation fuel to be produced from water and carbon dioxide from the air via solar energy instead of conventional sources. In addition SiC materials with enhanced oxidation resistance could be applied to vessels and components across many industrial, thermal, chemical, and petrochemical processes.

Program: 
Project Term: 
08/02/2018 to 08/01/2020
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Saint-Gobain will combine a pressurized all-ceramic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack with a custom-designed screw compressor and expander to yield a highly efficient SOFC and Brayton cycle hybrid system. In this configuration, the SOFC stack generates most of the system's electric power. The expander converts a portion of the stack's waste exergy to additional electric power. Saint-Gobain and its partners will integrate three enabling technologies: Saint-Gobain's robust all-ceramic SOFC stack, Brayton Energy LLC's rotary screw engine (compressor and expander), and Precision Combustion Inc.'s (PCI) SOFC-reformer integrated hotbox. Due to its monolithic nature, the all-ceramic stack enables high pressure, efficient operation, and long-term durability that may provide a 20-year life without stack replacement. Saint-Gobain will develop low-cost ceramic forming techniques to link to its multi-cell co-sintering process. The screw components developed in this program would eliminate the risk of pressure surges during operation. This is a common problem with conventional gas turbines, which can potentially damage SOFC stacks. Finally, PCI's unique hotbox will allow pressurized operation of the SOFC stack and maximize heat transfer and waste heat capture to minimize energy losses. This project will potentially introduce a new distributed, high durability, and enhanced lifetime electricity production system capable of 70% efficiency.
Program: 
Project Term: 
09/17/2014 to 11/20/2015
Project Status: 
CANCELLED
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
SiEnergy Systems is developing a hybrid electrochemical system that uses a multi-functional electrode to allow the cell to perform as both a fuel cell and a battery, a capability that does not exist today. A fuel cell can convert chemical energy stored in domestically abundant natural gas to electrical energy at high efficiency, but adoption of these technologies has been slow due to high cost and limited functionality. SiEnergy's design would expand the functional capability of a fuel cell to two modes: fuel cell mode and battery mode. In fuel cell mode, non-precious metal catalysts are integrated at the cell's anode to react directly with hydrocarbons such as the methane found in natural gas. In battery mode, the system will provide storage capability that offers faster response to changes in power demand compared to a standard fuel cell. SiEnergy's technology will operate at relatively low temperatures of 300-500ºC, which makes the system more durable than existing high-temperature fuel cells.
Program: 
Project Term: 
12/31/2009 to 12/31/2012
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Sun Catalytix is developing wireless energy-storage devices that convert sunlight and water into renewable fuel. Learning from nature, one such device mimics the ability of a tree leaf to convert sunlight into storable energy. It is comprised of a silicon solar cell coated with catalytic materials, which help speed up the energy conversion process. When this cell is placed in a container of water and exposed to sunlight, it splits the water into bubbles of oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen and oxygen can later be recombined to create electricity, when the sun goes down for example. The Sun Catalytix device is novel in many ways: it consists primarily of low-cost, earth-abundant materials where other attempts have required more expensive materials like platinum. Its operating conditions also facilitate the use of less costly construction materials, whereas other efforts have required extremely corrosive conditions.

Program: 
Project Term: 
02/06/2017 to 03/13/2018
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

Triton Systems will develop and demonstrate a high efficiency windowpane system that will encourage retrofitting of single-pane windows. Triton's Multifunctional Glazing System (MGS) will potentially provide a better balance of performance with cost and weight versus double-pane insulated glass units. The system combines a nanoparticle-polymer composite film with an insulating layer of a porous material filled with air, to provide thermal insulation. The team will enhance the pane's durability by incorporating a nanocomposite edge seal. The thickness of the MGS will be less than ¼ inch, ensuring its compatibility with most single-pane window sashes as a direct glazing replacement.

University of Massachusetts at Amherst (UMass Amherst)
Program: 
Project Term: 
01/01/2012 to 12/31/2015
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

The University of Massachusetts at Amherst (UMass Amherst) is developing an enhanced, biofuels-producing variant of Camelina, a drought-resistant, cold-tolerant oilseed crop that can be grown in many places other plants cannot. The team is working to incorporate several genetic traits into Camelina that increases its natural ability to produce oils and add the production of energy-dense terpene molecules that can be easily converted into liquid fuels. UMass Amherst is also experimenting with translating a component common in algae to Camelina that should allow the plants to absorb higher levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), which aids in enhancing photosynthesis and fuel conversion. The process will first be demonstrated in tobacco before being applied in Camelina.

University of Massachusetts at Amherst (UMass Amherst)
Program: 
Project Term: 
07/01/2010 to 06/30/2014
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
The University of Massachusetts at Amherst (UMass Amherst) is feeding renewable electricity to bacteria to provide the microorganisms with the energy they need to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into liquid fuels. UMass Amherst's energy-to-fuels conversion process is anticipated to be more efficient than current biofuels approaches in part because this process will leverage the high efficiency of photovoltaics to convert solar energy into electricity. UMass Amherst is using bacteria already known to produce biofuel from electric current and CO2 and working to increase the amount of electric current those microorganisms will accept and use for biofuels production. In collaboration with scientists at University of California, San Diego, the UMass Amherst team is also investigating the use of hydrogen sulfide as a source of energy to power biofuel production.
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Program: 
Project Term: 
06/15/2018 to 06/14/2021
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution leads a MARINER Category 5 project, to develop a selective breeding program for sugar kelp, Saccharina latissima, one of the most commercially important kelp varieties. The goal of the project is to improve productivity and cost effectiveness of seaweed farming. The breeding program will build a germplasm library associated with plants that produce a 20% to 30% yield improvement over plants currently in the field. By using a combination of novel rapid phenotyping, genome-wide association studies, and genome prediction methods, the team expects to accelerate the production of improved plants while decreasing the number of costly field evaluations. The project will conduct sampling and testing at field sites in New England and Alaska. If successful, the team will establish a breeding program that increases the quantitative genetic knowledge and genomic resources necessary to make informed breeding decisions -- enabling the first step towards domestication and economically viable production of sugar kelp for bioenergy production in the United States.

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Program: 
Project Term: 
02/08/2018 to 08/07/2021
Project Status: 
ACTIVE
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 

The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution will lead a MARINER Category 4 project to develop an autonomous unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) system for monitoring large-scale seaweed farms for extended periods. Compared to more costly human labor and boat operations, UUV systems present an attractive option for consistent, daily monitoring of large-scale, offshore seaweed farms. The system will routinely survey and quantify key parameters such as infrastructure health, macroalgae growth rate, and nutrient content of the water. An upward/downward split-beam acoustic echosounder will use sonar technology to monitor the longline array used to grow the macroalgae, quantify growth on the longlines, and detect fish/zooplankton in the water column. Environmental sensors include a nitrate sensor (nutrients) and a package for collecting temperature and salinity data. A panoramic camera system will be used for close inspection of infrastructure and anomalies, with images available to operators within 24 hours of capture. Real-time processing of acoustic data, fed back into the autonomy system, will be used to map infrastructure and navigate the UUV relative to longlines for macroalgae sensing. Ultimately the UUV-based system will be able to operate in real conditions offshore and over large areas without human intervention.

Program: 
Project Term: 
10/01/2012 to 09/30/2015
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Project State: 
Massachusetts
Technical Categories: 
Xilectric is developing a totally new class of low-cost rechargeable batteries with a chemistry analogous to the original nickel-iron Edison battery. At the turn of the 20th century, Thomas Edison experimented with low-cost, durable nickel-iron aqueous batteries for use in EVs. Given their inability to operate in cold weather and higher cost than lead-acid batteries, Edison's batteries were eventually dismissed for automotive applications. Xilectric is reviving and re-engineering the basic chemistry of the Edison battery, using domestically abundant, environmentally friendly, and low-cost metals, such as aluminum and magnesium, as its active components. Xilectric's design would be easy to manufacture and demonstrate longer life span than today's best Li-ion batteries, enabling more widespread use of EVs.