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Bi-functional Ceramic Fuel Cell Energy System

University of South Carolina
A Novel Intermediate-Temperature Bi-functional Ceramic Fuel Cell Energy System
Graphic of USC's technology
Program: 
ARPA-E Award: 
$3,200,000
Location: 
Columbia , SC
Project Term: 
10/01/2014 to 09/30/2017
Project Status: 
ALUMNI
Technical Categories: 
Critical Need: 
Centralized power generation systems offer excellent economy of scale but often require long transmission distances between supply and distribution points, leading to efficiency losses throughout the grid. Additionally, it can be challenging to integrate energy from renewable energy sources into centralized systems. Fuel cells--or devices that convert the chemical energy of a fuel source into electrical energy--are optimal for distributed power generation systems, which generate power close to where it is used. Distributed generation systems offer an alternative to the large, centralized power generation facilities or power plants that are currently commonplace. There is also a need for small, modular technologies that convert natural gas to liquid fuels and other products for easier transport. Such processes are currently limited to very large installations with high capital expenses. Today's fuel cell research generally focuses on technologies that either operate at high temperatures for grid-scale applications or at low temperatures for vehicle technologies. There is a critical need for intermediate-temperature fuel cells that offer low-cost, distributed generation both at the system and device levels.
Project Innovation + Advantages: 
The University of South Carolina is developing an intermediate-temperature, ceramic-based fuel cell that will both generate and store electrical power with high efficiencies. Reducing operating temperatures for fuel cells is critical to enabling distributed power generation. The device will incorporate a newly discovered ceramic electrolyte and nanostructured electrodes that enable it to operate at temperatures lower than 500ºC, far below the temperatures associated with fuel cells for grid-scale power generation. The fuel cell's unique design includes an iron-based layer that stores electrical charge like a battery, enabling a faster response to changes in power demand.
Potential Impact: 
If successful, the University of South Carolina's intermediate-temperature fuel cell will triple the power density and energy capacity of existing fuel cells at less than 500ºC, enabling distributed power generation.
Security: 
Enabling more efficient use of natural gas for power generation provides a reliable alternative to other fuel sources--a broader fuel portfolio means more energy security.
Environment: 
Natural gas produces roughly half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal, making it an environmentally friendly alternative to existing sources of power generation.
Economy: 
Distributed generation technologies would reduce costs associated with power losses compared to centralized power stations and provide lower operating costs due to peak shaving.
Contacts
ARPA-E Program Director: 
Dr. Paul Albertus
Project Contact: 
Prof. Kevin Huang
Partners
Acumentrics Corporation
University of Texas, Austin
Release Date: 
6/19/2014