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Liquid Fuels and Electricity from Intermediate-Temperature Fuel Cells

FuelCell Energy
Dual-Mode Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cell: Liquid Fuels and Electricity
Graphic of FuelCellEnergy's technology
Program: 
ARPA-E Award: 
$3,499,967
Location: 
Danbury, CT
Project Term: 
10/01/2014 to 09/30/2017
Project Status: 
CANCELLED
Technical Categories: 
Critical Need: 
Centralized power generation systems offer excellent economy of scale but often require long transmission distances between supply and distribution points, leading to efficiency losses throughout the grid. Additionally, it can be challenging to integrate energy from renewable energy sources into centralized systems. Fuel cells--or devices that convert the chemical energy of a fuel source into electrical energy--are optimal for distributed power generation systems, which generate power close to where it is used. Distributed generation systems offer an alternative to the large, centralized power generation facilities or power plants that are currently commonplace. There is also a need for small, modular technologies that convert natural gas to liquid fuels and other products for easier transport. Such processes are currently limited to very large installations with high capital expenses. Today's fuel cell research generally focuses on technologies that either operate at high temperatures for grid-scale applications or at low temperatures for vehicle technologies. There is a critical need for intermediate-temperature fuel cells that offer low-cost, distributed generation both at the system and device levels.
Project Innovation + Advantages: 
FuelCell Energy will develop an intermediate-temperature fuel cell that will directly convert methane to methanol and other liquid fuels using advanced metal catalysts. Existing fuel cell technologies typically convert chemical energy from hydrogen into electricity during a chemical reaction with oxygen or some other agent. FuelCell Energy's cell would create liquid fuel from natural gas. Their advanced catalysts are optimized to improve the yield and selectivity of methane-to-methanol reactions; this efficiency provides the ability to run a fuel cell on methane instead of hydrogen. In addition, FuelCell Energy will utilize a new reactive spray deposition technique that can be employed to manufacture their fuel cell in a continuous process. The combination of these advanced catalysts and advanced manufacturing techniques will reduce overall system-level costs.
Potential Impact: 
If successful, FuelCell Energy's intermediate-temperature fuel cell will cost-effectively convert methane to methanol and other liquid fuels using a small, modular technology.
Security: 
Enabling more efficient use of natural gas for power generation provides a reliable alternative to other fuel sources--a broader fuel portfolio means more energy security.
Environment: 
Flaring and venting of natural gas results in significant greenhouse gas emissions. Converting stranded natural gas to a liquid fuel simultaneously reduces greenhouse gas emissions and produces valuable products.
Economy: 
Distributed generation technologies would reduce costs associated with power losses compared to centralized power stations and provide lower operating costs due to peak shaving.
Contacts
ARPA-E Program Director: 
Dr. Grigorii Soloveichik
Project Contact: 
Mr. Carl Willman
Partners
University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center
University of Connecticut
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Release Date: 
6/19/2014