CO2mposite: Recycling of CO2, Carbon Fiber Waste, and Biomaterials into Composite Panels for Lower Embodied Carbon Building Materials

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Knoxville, Tennessee
Project Term:
12/12/2022 - 12/11/2025

Critical Need:

HESTIA addresses the need for implementing carbon removal strategies by converting buildings into carbon storage structures. HESTIA is also important for nullifying embodied emissions. The majority of these emissions are concentrated at the start of a building’s lifetime and locked in before the building is ever used. This upfront emissions spike equals 10 years of operational emissions in a building constructed to meet standard code, but increases to 35 years for more advanced, higher operating efficiency buildings, and more than 50 years for high-efficiency buildings operating on a lower carbon intensity grid. These time horizons go beyond 2050 climate targets, which means embodied emission reduction strategies are a high priority.

Project Innovation + Advantages:

SkyNano will create composite panels for the building industry via a multi-scale materials approach combining recycled carbon fibers diverted from landfills, directly utilized CO2 via electro-reduction into solid carbon nanotubes, and biomaterials such as bamboo fibers. The panels will exhibit excellent mechanical and functional properties while maintaining a carbon-negative footprint on a cradle-to-gate and cradle-to-grave basis, exceeding the performance of today’s state-of-the-art panels. The team proposes to develop and test the panel in a 1ft2 format, which is envisioned to be applicable for interior wall coverings, non-load bearing interior walls, exterior facades, and ceiling panels. The technology will increase mechanical and functional performance of materials used in built environment, introduce new materials to an industry that has used essentially the same ones for decades, and enable interior building surfaces to be CO2 negative.

Potential Impact:

HESTIA projects will facilitate the use of carbon storing materials in building construction to achieve net carbon negativity by optimizing material chemistries and matrices, manufacturing, and whole-building designs in a cost-effective manner.


HESTIA technologies will reduce the carbon footprint of the built environment.


Building materials and designs developed under HESTIA will draw down and store CO2 from the atmosphere.


A variety of promising carbon storing materials are being explored and commercialized for building construction. Currently these materials are generally scarcer, cost more per unit, and/or face performance challenges (e.g., flame resistance for biogenic carbon-containing materials). HESTIA seeks technologies that overcome these barriers while nullifying associated emissions and increasing the total amount of carbon stored in the finished product.


ARPA-E Program Director:
Dr. Marina Sofos
Project Contact:
Dr. Anna Douglas
Press and General Inquiries Email:
Project Contact Email:

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