Molecule Works will develop an electrochemical membrane reactor to produce ammonia from air, water, and renewable electricity. The team proposes a solid-state, thin-film alkaline electrochemical cell that has the potential to enhance ammonia synthesis productivity and energy efficiency, while lowering the cell material and fabrication costs. Current systems for ammonia production all have several challenges. Some use acidic membranes that can react with ammonia, resulting in lower conductivity and reduced membrane life. Others that operate at low temperatures (<100°C) may have low rates of reactions, while those that operate at high temperatures (>500°C) have long-heating processes that make them less practical for intermittent operation using renewable energy. Alkaline electrolytes have a number of advantages over traditional cells. Notably, alkaline electrolytes allow a larger area of the catalyst for nitrogen activation, increasing the rate of ammonia production. The team's system operates at a much lower temperature and pressure than the traditional ammonia production process. The modular nature of the system will also allow it to be deployed near the point of use.
If successful, developments from REFUEL projects will enable energy generated from domestic, renewable resources to increase fuel diversity in the transportation sector in a cost-effective and efficient way.
The U.S. transportation sector is heavily dependent on petroleum for its energy. Increasing the diversity of energy-dense liquid fuels would bolster energy security and help reduce energy imports.
Liquid fuels created using energy from renewable resources are carbon-neutral, helping reduce transportation sector emissions.
Fuel diversity reduces exposure to price volatility. By storing energy in hydrogen-rich liquid fuels instead of pure hydrogen in liquid or gaseous form, transportation costs can be greatly reduced, helping make CNLFs cost-competitive with traditional fuels.