Low-Cost, High Areal Capacity, Anode-Free Sodium-Metal Batteries Enabled by Solid Electrolytes

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Cambridge, Massachusetts
Project Term:
05/25/2023 - 05/24/2026

Critical Need:

The transportation sector is responsible for 28% of greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., with road-based passenger vehicles accounting for 57% of those emissions. Cars, sport utility vehicles, minivans, and pick-up trucks emit more than one billion tons of CO2 domestically per year. As the U.S. works to decarbonize the transportation sector and increase production of “clean” (zero emission) electricity, electric vehicles (EVs) are compelling alternatives to vehicles with internal combustion engines. The key to EV adoption is a reliable, inexpensive battery that can charge fast and provide improved performance and range retention in cold weather compared to state-of-the-art commercial options.

Project Innovation + Advantages:

24M Technologies will develop low-cost and fast-charging sodium metal EV batteries with good low-temperature performance. 24M’s cell design will incorporate (1) its ultra-thick SemiSolid cathode made up of cobalt-free and nickel-free sodium-based active materials, (2) a wide-temperature, fast-charging electrolyte developed using machine learning and automated high-throughput screening technology, and (3) a solid-state electrolyte-based separator to enable a high-energy density, anode-free configuration. The SemiSolid electrode architecture has been commercially demonstrated with exceptionally high energy density using lithium-ion chemistry. Applying it to sodium-ion chemistry with relatively higher conductivities and high mechanical strength NASICON solid-state film will pave the way for improved low-temperature performance retentions, fast-charging, high-energy density, and reduced cost.

Potential Impact:

EVs4ALL’s primary objective is to increase the domestic adoption of new and used EVs by enabling safe, resilient, fast-charging batteries with improved performance at low temperatures.


Solutions will target the use of “noncritical” battery materials, while minimizing the use of cobalt and nickel. A reduced dependence on the importation of critical metals supports U.S. energy independence.


80% adoption of EVs in the U.S. could reduce overall CO2 emissions by 800 million tons/year.


80% adoption of EVs in the U.S. could reduce annual energy consumption by 4 quadrillion British Thermal Units.


ARPA-E Program Director:
Dr. Halle Cheeseman
Project Contact:
Dr. Junzheng Chen
Press and General Inquiries Email:
Project Contact Email:


Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Carnegie Mellon University

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