Additive Manufacturing for Electric Vehicle Motors
Rare earths are naturally occurring minerals with unique magnetic properties that are used in electric vehicle (EV) motors and wind generators. Because these minerals are expensive and in limited supply, alternative technologies must be developed to replace rare-earth-based magnets in motors and generators. Alternatives to rare earths will contribute to the cost-effectiveness of EVs and wind generators, facilitating their widespread use and drastically reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.
Project Innovation + Advantages:
United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) is using additive manufacturing techniques to develop an ultra-high-efficiency electric motor for automobiles. The process and design does not rely on rare earth materials and sidesteps any associated supply concerns. Additive manufacturing uses a laser to deposit copper and insulation, layer-by-layer, instead of winding wires. EV motors rely heavily on permanent magnets, which are expensive given the high concentrations of rare earth material required to deliver the performance required in today’s market. UTRC’s efficient manufacturing method would produce motors that reduce electricity use and require less rare earth material. This project will also examine the application of additive manufacturing more widely for other energy systems, such as renewable power generators.
If successful, UTRC’s additive manufacturing process for motors and generators would reduce the need for rare earth materials, thus limiting their cost and improving their performance.
The U.S. produces a small fraction of the world's industrial rare earths. Developing alternatives to the use of rare earths has potential to reduce our dependence on these materials and will have a positive impact on our national economic and energy security.
The transportation and electric power sectors account for nearly 75% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions each year. Cheaper motors will encourage the widespread use of EVs and wind power, significantly reducing emissions.
The U.S. spends nearly $1 billion per day on imported petroleum. Improvements in motor technology will encourage broader use of EVs, reducing the economic impacts of oil price fluctuations.